By John Bryan Holds, MD
Emphasizing a pragmatic method of analysis and remedy, this quantity summarizes present info on congenital, infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, and tense stipulations of the orbit and adnexa. Highlights contain large dialogue of thyroid-associated orbitopathy, lymphoproliferative issues, and eyelid neoplasms. includes up to date references and diverse new colour photographs.
Read or Download 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009) PDF
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Additional info for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
The conchae are covered by nasal mucosa, and they overhang the corresponding meatuses. Just cephalad to the superior concha is the sphenoethmoidal recess, into which the sphenoid sinus drains. The frontal sinus and the anterior and middle ethmoid air cells drain into the middle meatus. The nasolacrimal duct opens into the inferior meatus. The nasal cavity is lined by a pseudostratified, ciliated columnar epithelium with copious goblet cells. The mucous membrane overlying the lateral alar cartilage is hair-bearing and therefore less suitable for use as a composite graft in eyelid reconstruction than the mucoperichondrium over the nasal septum, which is devoid of hair.
Pulsation Pulsation without bruits may be produced by sphenoid wing defects that are associated with neurofibromatosis or meningoencephaloceles, or it may result from surgical removal of the orbital roof. Pulsation with or without bruits may result from high-flow carotid cavernous or dural cavernous fistulas or from orbital arteriovenous malformations. Periorbital Changes Periorbital changes may indicate underlying disorders. Table 2-1 lists various signs and their common causes. Physical Examination and Laboratory Tests Special attention to ocular motility, pupillary function, and ophthalmoscopy is necessary.
This results in rapid acquisition of a larger volume of data that, in combination with modern software, allows highly detailed reconstructions in all imaging planes. Because acquisition times are very short, there is a reduction in motion artifact and in the amount of radiation exposure, all of which make spiral CT an especially good modality for imaging children. Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography This technique allows reformatting of CT information into 3-dimensional projections of the bony orbital walls.