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By K. R. Norman

This quantity comprises a little bit revised types of the lectures given through Professor Norman as Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai vacationing Professor on the college of Oriental and African experiences from January to March 1994. The lectures are designed for readers with little

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Additional info for A philological approach to Buddhism : the Bukkyō Dendō Kyōkai lectures 1994

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From the fact that they did not do so but continued to use the terms Buddha and Jina in both Jainism and Buddhism, we may deduce that these words were in common use prior to the origin of both religions and were taken into both of them with a non-distinctive sense. That is to say that there were those who were spoken of as buddha “awakened” to , and those some sort of truth—doubtless about the possibility of release from who were called jina “conqueror”, doubtless conquerors of , before the words were taken over into both religions, and it was then a matter of the historical development of the terminology of both religions that the specific distinction which those words denote now in those two religions arose.

E. he had had some sort of meditative experience, as a boy, which he equated with the first stage of the code of meditative practices we read about later on. Repeating his boyhood experience, the Buddha then went on to a second and a third and a fourth jhāna. I would personally doubt that at this early time the four jhānas were so rigidly delineated. I would assume that his meditative experience simply flowed on, and it was only later, when the Buddha came to teach these meditations to his followers, that they were codified and categorised as the four rūpa-jhānas “the meditations about form”.

His view that everything was “not self” (anattā), was based upon the brahmanical belief that the ātman was nitya “permanent” and sukha “happiness”. Hence the Buddha could refute this by pointing out that the world, which was supposed to be part of ātman, was in fact anicca “impermanent” and dukkha “misery”23—his belief that the world was dukkha was, of course, the first noble truth. The Buddha’s teaching about this is, however, not always understood. The word anattā is sometimes translated “having no soul”, and various things which are specified to be anattā are thought of as having no soul.

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