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By Virmani, O. P.; Narula, A. K.

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And produce scale. 3 3 A1 + and Fe + may also contribute to tbe bardness of water but tbeir ionic concentrations in natural waters are generally negligible.. Surface waters contain very small amounts of dissolved impurity. , and dissolves the insoluble carbonates present: MC0 3 + CO 2 + H 20 --~. , present as impurities in tbe limestone becoIl1l~ exposed to the solvent action of water and pass into solution, thereby adding to the hardness orwatt~r. ,:-+ eq. wt. 25) as CaC03 [50 being the eq. wI ofCaC03 ] where M2+ is any divalent metallic ion.

1 Determ,ination of chloride content of a water sample by Mohr's Method (Argentometric) Reagents Required 1. Standard silver nitrate solution (N/50) 2. Potassium chromate indicator solution (K2Cr04) 3. Solid CaC03 . Theory Chloride ions in a neutral or faintly alkaline solution can be estimated by titration with a standard solution of AgN0 3 using K2Cr04 as indicator. The pH must be ill the range of 7 to 8 because Ag + ion is precipitated as AgOH at higher pH Ag + + OH - .. 18) HCrOi being a weak acid, CrO~ - ion concentration is decreased necessitating higher concentration of Ag + for the solubility product of Ag2Cr04 to be exceeded, thus leading to higher results.

Repeat tht' whole process a number oftimes to get concordant readings. Record the concordant volume as A 1111. Precautions (1) The whole apparatus must be washed with distilled water. (2) The same amount of the indicator must he added each time. (3) The Tt~action mixture should be briskly shaken during the titration. Observations and Calculalions Volume of the sample taken t~ach 100 ml time Concordant volume of N/50 AgN0 3 used N 2V 2 N\V 1 (CI ion sample) Nt x 100 Therefore. 1 x A ppm Exercises 45.

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