By Erna E. Kritzinger
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Extra info for A Colour Atlas of Optic Disc Abnormalities
Young used Huygens' principle to explain the series of light and dark regions produced when the image of the sun passing through two pinhole apertures elose together on a card was viewed on a screen some distance away. Each aperture was imagined to be the source of a spherical wave which spread out until it struck the screen. Where wavefronts intersected at the screen, constructive interference produced a bright spot, while dark spots would result where wavefronts were out of phase. Analogous interference effects may be seen in ripple tanks or bodies of water in which waves may overlap and add together.
Non-collimated beams or those that have been spread by reflection from a diffusing surface are of less importance. As shown in Fig. 1-2, the retina is not veryvulnerable if the laser radiation is 4 Sliney and Wolbarsht IR-A (IE BAND 100 280 315 760 PHOTOKERATITIS I RETINAL BURNS ADVERSE OCATARACT EFFECTS IR-B 1400 IR-( 3000 106 " CORNEAL BURNS I CATARACTS ERYTHEMA THERMAL SKIN BURNS REFERENCE UNE SKIN PENETRA TION OF RADIATION (DEPTHj Figure 1-3. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) divides the optieal speetrum into seven speetral bands.
Good practice in industrial hygiene is to ensure that the general ventilation is adequate or to specify local exhaust ventilation. These and other environmental health subjects are discussed in Chapter 27. Liquid nitrogen and other cryogenic fluids are utilized in cooling systems of certain lasers. Two examples are high-powered gallium-arsenide laser arrays and solid 6 Sliney and Wolbarsht state ruby lasers operating in the continuous wave (CW) mode which are pumped continuously by a high intensity lamp.