By David Banks
Using the warmth kept within the shallow subsurface for area heating (ground resource warmth) is typical in North the USA and plenty of ecu countries, similar to Sweden, and is considered crucial and trustworthy 'green' area heating know-how. in lots of international locations, together with Britain, the expertise continues to be poorly understood and below used. this example is ready to alter, even though, with the united kingdom marketplace for floor resource warmth pumps starting to be at over a hundred% every year. This ebook bargains useful assistance and should equip engineers, planners and geologists with the basic abilities to evaluate and enforce this new expertise and to introduce them to the technological know-how in the back of thermogeology.
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Additional info for An introduction to thermogeology: ground source heating and cooling
E. it plots below the liquidus). Vapour-dominated systems are rarer. Here water and steam may be present in the reservoir rocks, but steam will be the pressure-controlling phase. These systems typically produce dry or superheated steam. 8) typically requires geothermal systems producing ﬂuids at temperatures over 150◦ C. In systems producing mixtures of water and steam or wet steam, a separator may be required to remove the water component from the steam. The efﬁciency of the turbine can be improved by using a condensing unit to condense the steam following passage through the turbine.
Ii. The supply of geothermal ﬂuid (whether it be water or steam) may diminish, as we are abstracting the ﬂuid at rate greater than its natural replenishment. Thus, to assess the sustainability of a geothermal operation we need to have a very clear understanding of both the heat budget and the water budget of system, and the boundary conditions of these systems. When constructing our heat budget, we should remember that, in many geothermal systems, there are at least two, and maybe three, mechanisms of heat recharge to a subsurface geothermal system (Stefansson and Axelsson, 2003): • advection of magma; • advection of groundwater (or geothermal ﬂuid); • conduction.
Here, water is injected down a borehole, through a packer, at very high pressure. 11 (a) Flow diagram of the Nesjavellir plant, Iceland. (b) Simplified flow diagram for the district heating in Reykjavik. Both diagrams after Lund (2005) and reproduced by kind permission of Dr John W Lund and the GeoHeat Center, Klamath Falls, Oregon. 12 A hot dry rock geothermal exploitation system. inherent tensile strength and eventually creates a new fracture (or opens existing planes of weakness or joints in the rock).